Molecular Cytology and Genetics

Prospects of graduates

The graduate of the Molecular Cytology study program masters the scientific research methods used in the field and focuses on acquiring the latest theoretical knowledge in the field of molecular cytology. It examines biochemical, physiological, cellular and molecular biological processes and their morphological manifestations at the cellular and subcellular levels. He works with a wide range of laboratory samples and uses traditional but above all innovative technologies (e.g. image analysis, flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry) to detect, analyse and quantify molecules in their natural environment such as cells, tissues, organs, embryos and tumours to obtain new scientific results. The results of his creative experimental work not only contribute to the development of science and scientific knowledge, but also have applications in human and veterinary medicine, agriculture, pharmacology and biotechnology. Graduates are employed in research institutes, medical institutions and schools at home and abroad.

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Conditions of admission

successful completion of the entrance exam

Additional information

Knowledge of cytology, molecular biology, genetics and their sub-disciplines in the scope of the second cycle of university studies is required from the applicant. The ability to work with scientific text in English is a prerequisite.
Chemical composition of cells
Energy, catalysis and biosynthesis (Catalysis and energy utilization by cells. Activated carrier molecules and biosynthesis)
How cells obtain energy from food (Degradation of sugars and fats. Storage and utilization of food.)
Proteins: structure and function
DNA (Structure and function of DNA. DNA replication. DNA repair.)
From DNA to proteins (From DNA to RNA. From RNA to proteins. RNA and the origin of life.)
Chromosomes and gene regulation (Structure of eukaryotic chromosomes. Gene regulation.)
Genetic diversity (Genetic diversity in bacteria. Sources of genetic changes in eukaryotic genomes. Sexual reproduction and reorganization of genes.)
DNA technologies (How DNA molecules are analyzed. Hybridization of nucleic acids. Cloning of DNA. Genetic engineering.)
Membrane structure (Lipid bilayer. Membrane proteins.)
Transport of substances across membranes (Carrier proteins and their function. Ion channels and membrane potential. Ion channels and signaling in nerve cells.)
Energy acquisition in mitochondria and chloroplasts
Intra-cellular compartments and transport
Cell-to-cell communication
Cell division
Cell division control and cell death

Genetics:What is genetics? Living nature as an integrated genetics laboratory. History and current status of genetics. Sub-disciplines of genetics. J. G. Mendel - the founder of genetics. Mendel's genetic principles. Cytological mechanisms of inheritance. Monohybrid, dihybrid, trihybrid. Multiple allele series. Penetrance and expressivity. Gene interactions. Cytological basis of gene interactions. Types of gene interactions. Reciprocal interaction, epistasis, inhibition, compensation, complementarity, duplicated genes. Inheritance of quantitative traits. Contribution of genotype and environment. Heritability. Coefficient of genetic determination. Biometric evaluation. Gene linkage. Cytological basis of linkage. Binding phases. Crossing-over. Probable molecular mechanism of crossing-over. Models of genetic recombination. Chromosome maps. Mapping of genetic loci on a chromosome. In situ hybridization of metaphase chromosomes. Mapping of genes by molecular genetics methods. Genetic sex determination. Brief phylogenetic overview. Sex types and sex chromosomes. Gonosome locus. Lyon's hypothesis. Dutch inheritance. Sex-linked, sex-influenced and sex-controlled traits. Extrachromosomal genetic determinants. Plastid and mitochondrial DNA. Intracellular symbiosis. Genetic mechanisms at the subcellular level. Genetics of viruses. Retroviruses. Provirus. AIDS. Genetics of prokaryotic organisms. Bacterial genome. Mechanisms of bacterial gene transfer. Conjugation, transformation, transduction. Restriction-modification systems. Restriction endonucleases and their importance in gene manipulation. Cytogenetics. Chromosome structure. rDNA. Cytogenetic methods. Chromosome number, karyotype, DNA content. Mutations and mutagenesis. Chemical and physical mutagens. Classification of mutations. Detection of mutations. Material nature of the gene. Structure and function of DNA, mRNA, tRNA, rRNA. Genetic code. DNA replication. Mechanisms of replication. Enzymes of replication. Transcription and translation. Mechanism of transcription in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. Mechanism of translation. Posttranscriptional and posttranslational modifications. Regulation of gene expression in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. Induction and repression. Feedback regulation. Regulatory mechanisms in eukaryotic organisms. Promoter function in the regulation of gene expression. Fundamentals of human genetics. Methods in human genetics. Genealogical and gemelological methods. Cytogenetic, biochemical and molecular genetic methods. Inheritance of some normal traits. Inheritance of some pathological traits and diseases. The human karyotype and the consequences of its changes. Population genetics. Hardy-Weinberg law and conditions of its validity. Genetic equilibrium in a population. Changes in allele and genotype frequencies and their genetic consequences. Applied genetics. Genetics in plant and animal production. Molecular evolution. Insights from sequencing of eukaryotic genomes. HUGO. Common and divergent genetic characteristics. Model organisms in genetics.

Sub-discipline of genetics: according to the focus of the dissertation topic.

Form of entrance exam


  • Apply the application for study

    01.03.2024 - 31.05.2024

  • Performance of the entrance exam

    17.06.2024 - 28.06.2024

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  • CV
  • verified copy of the degree for applicant of other universities
  • photocopy of the Diploma Supplement to candidates from other universities

Annual tuition fees
Standard length of study: cost free

The fee for admission procedure
application form: 50 €
E-application form: 40 €

Billing information

Bank: Treasury. Bank code: 8180

Account number: SK 28 8180 0000 0070 0007 8491

Variable symbol: 2996

Constant symbol: 0308

Specific symbol: birth number without slash

Recipient message: name and surname of the applicant

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We will send you all the information about important events and deadlines.

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Detail of the study program

The first three years of your studies could be funded by a scholarship of up to €9,000. More information

Detail of the study program


0911 154 882
0910 288 664
037 / 6414881
037 / 6414890
(7.30 - 15.30 h.)


Responsibility for content: RNDr. Iveta Sováková –
Last update: 30.11.2023 09:44

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